Resource: Six Sigma Management and Planning tools , Affinity diagram or KJ Method ( Linking ideas to form pattern ) , Tree diagram Process decision program chart (PDPC) (start Point to our final complex goal) , Matrix diagram (strength of the relationship between a grid of rows and columns) , Prioritization matrices (prioritize on weighted criteria) Activity network diagram , Plan Do Check Act PDCA , Interrelationship diagraph ( Use for complex ideas, Place ideas in group , arrow goes cause item to the effective item, high no of incoming indicate outcome , outgoing root cause )
Six Sigma Management and Planning tools:
3.Process decision program chart (PDPC)
7.Activity network diagram
The affinity diagram method is a technique for problem solving. The affinity diagram is similar to the mind mapping technique, that generates ideas linking up other ideas to form patterns of thoughts. The affinity diagram uses a more organized technique to gather facts and ideas to form developed pattern of thoughts. It can be widely used in the planning stages of a problem to organize the ideas and information.
The steps can be organized as follows:
•Define the problem under consideration
•Have 3”x5”cards for use
•Enter ideas, data, facts, opinions, etc, on the cards
•Place the cards or notes on a conference table or on a wall
•Arrange the groups into similar thought pattern or categories
•Develop a main category or idea for each group. That main category idea becomes affinity card
•Once all the cards have “finally”been placed under a proper affinity card, the diagram can be drawn up.
Borders can be drawn around the affinity groups for clarity
The affinity diagram can also referred to as the KJ method, because it was developed by Dr. KawakitaJiro.
KJ Method : The affinity diagram is a business tool used to organize ideas and data. People have been grouping data into groups based on natural relationships for thousands of years.
The affinity diagram organizes ideas with following steps:
- Record each idea on cards or notes.
- Look for ideas that seem to be related.
- Sort cards into groups until all cards have been used.
Once the cards have been sorted into groups the team may sort large clusters into subgroups for easier management and analysis. In many cases, the best results tend to be achieved when the activity is completed by a cross-functional team, including key stakeholders. The process requires becoming deeply immersed in the data, which has benefits beyond the tangible deliverable.
Interrelationship Diagraphs (I.D.)
This technique is created for the more complex problems or issues that management may face. If the issues is very complex, exact relationships may be difficult to determine. The idea is to have a process of creative Problem solving that will eventually indicate some key causes. Here are the steps for I.D.
•Develop about 50 items that pertain to basic problem, on 3”x5”cards. (I.D. cards)
•A choice is made to use a pattern of placing closely related items together
•Assign arrow that goes from the cause item to the effective item(cause effect)
•A high number of out going arrows indicates a root cause or driver. A high number of incoming arrows indicates an outcome.
The tree diagram is a systematic method to outline all the details needed to complete a given objective. The tree Diagram can also be referred to as systematic diagram. It is an orderly structure similar to a family tree chart Or an organization chart.
The tree diagram can be used to:
•Develop the elements for a new product
•Show the relationships of a production process
•Create new ideas in problem solving
•Outline project implementation steps
Steps to develop a tree diagram
•Determine the overall objective, goal, basic function of the tree diagram. Put that objective on a note card and place it on the far left side of the board.
•Next determine the second level of means that would achieve the goal, or “how”can you achieve the “why”card on the left.
•For each level of the tree, the same line of questioning is used, until a final level is achieved. The final level occurs When you have all details necessary to solve the overall objective is on the chart.
•After finishing the diagram, go back over it to confirm that each and all means will lead to a successful objectives. If so, your tree is complete.
Matrix Diagram show the relationship between objectives and methods, results and causes, tasks and peoples etc. The objective is to determine the strength of the relationship between a grid of rows and columns. The intersection of the grid will clarify the problem strength .
There are several basic types odmatrices:
•L-type: elements on the Y-axis and elements on the X-axis
•T-type: 2 sets of elements on the Y-axis, split by a set of elements on the on the X-axis
•X-type: 2 sets of elements on both the Y axis and X axis
•Y-type: 2 L-type matrices joined at Y axis to produce a matrix design in 3 planes
•C-type(3-d) matrix 3 L-type matrices joined at the Y-axis, but with only one set of relationships indicate in3 dimensional space (better use computer software)
Prioritization matrices prioritize issues, tasks, characteristics and so on based on weighted criteria.
Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC)
The process decision program chart method is used to chart the course of event that will take us from a start Point to our final complex goal. Uncertainties are planned and counter measures are planned. Some uses for the process decision program chart (PDPC) include:
•The problem is new, unique, or complex in nature. It may involve a sequence that can have very difficult and challenging steps
•The opportunity to create contingencies and to counter problems are available to the team.
Activity Network Diagram
The activity network diagram describes a methodology that include PERT, CPM, node/activity on node (AON), Precedence diagrams (PDM) and other network diagrams. The activity network diagram incorporates a lot of PERT and CPM techniques in its usage. The activities, milestones, and critical times must be developed and then drawn onto a chart.
Plan Do Check Act PDCA
PDCA was created by W Edwards Deming in the 1950’s as an easy to follow Problem SolvingCycle.
Deming was tasked with helping Japan rebuild its economy in the 1950’s.
His purpose was to use PDCA with a Continuous Improvementprocess to help rebuild Japanese industries so that they could compete in the world market in the future.
Plan : Purpose:-To INVESTIGATE the current situation & understand fully the nature of the problem being solved.
Diagnostic –Review Current Practice.
Define the Problem -Who,What,Where and When. Write Team Mission statement. Brainstorm potential causes of problem using simple Brainstorming or a Cause & Effect Diagram. Identify & agree potential Root Causes prioritizing using Paired Comparisons or by Consensus Rankings and asking the 5 WHY’s Set up methods to capture ‘REAL’data. Implement ‘QUICK FIXES’to protect the customer Make Process Flow Diagram Analyse ‘REAL DATA’& show graphically.
Bench-marking -Compare Best Practices Brainstorm where else may they have this problem, find out what they do to resolve it.
Do: Purpose:-To Enlighten the Team as to the Real Problem by analyzing the Data and defining and implementing a solution plan.
Key Steps ::–Enlighten Brainstorm solutions. Rank solutions to identify best impact. Carry out Failure Prevention Analysis. Carry out Solution Effect Analysis. Create Project Plan to implement solutions. Put measures of performance in place using Control Charts or Check Sheets.Implement Carry out Project Plan. Educate, train & communicate
Check: Purpose:-To monitor effect of implementation of project plan & find Countermeasures to further improve the solution.
Key Steps ::–Evaluate Collect data to monitor performance improvements. Involve & train those affected by solution plan. Communicate & feedback.Validate Resolve any issues by finding Countermeasures to ensure solution plan continues.
Act: Purpose:-To Review Continuously the Performance Measure & make adjustments as required. Integrate new situation into Normal Working Practice. Start PDCA Cycle
Key Actions ::–Correct & Standardize Decide if solution is effective& either integrate into normal working practice or abandon. If plan is abandoned, ask what has been learned by the process and, restart the project. Determine new target& start PDCA cycle again.