Resource : Six Sigma Nominal Group Techniques ( bring people together to solve problems but limits initial interaction no discussion voting ) Multivoting ( Generate Combine Important Silently Vote ) Force Field Analysis (forces favoring the desired goal (driving force) opposing forces to the desired goal (restraining forces) Brainstorming (Don’t criticize generate ideas encourage everyone)
Nominal Group Techniques
The nominal group technique (NGT) tries to bring people together to solve problems but limits initial interaction Among them. The concept is to prevent peer or social pressure from influencing the generation of ideas.
‘Nominal’here means limiting of communications. NGT has the following steps:
•A facilitator leads the discussion
•A group of five to nine individuals are assembled for idea generation
•A problem is presented
•Before any discussion is held, all members create ideas silently and individually onto a sheet of paper for about 5 to 10 minutes
•The facilitator then requests an idea from each member in sequence. Each idea is recorded until ideas are exhausted
•Like brainstorming, no discussion is allowed at this point
•After the exhaustion of ideas, the clarification, support and evaluation of ideas is permitted. Comments on the ideas of others is encouraged
•Voting for best solution is then conducted. Several rounds of voting may be needed before a ‘best’idea is found.
Multivotingis a technique to narrow down the lists generated by brainstorming, it consists of the following steps:
1.Generate and number a list of items
2.Combine similar items if group agrees
3.If necessary, renumber the list
4.Allow members to choose several items that they feel are most important. A suggested guide is to permit each member, a number of choices equal to at least one third of the total items on the list
5.Members may make their initial choices silently. The votes are then tallied.
6.To reduce the list, eliminate those items with the fewest votes.
Force Field Analysis
Force field analysis is a tool for problem identification and resolution, it can be performed by following steps:
1.A desire to understand the forces acting on a problem to be resolved
2.Determine the forces favoring the desired goal (driving force)
3.Determine the opposing forces to the desired goal (restraining forces)
4.Determine how to add the driving forces to overwhelm the restraining forces or
5.Remove or weaken the restraining forces, or
Brainstorming is an intentional uninhibited technique for generating creative ideas When best solution is not obvious. Here are some key points in brainstorming:
1.Generate a large number of ideas: Don’t inhibit anyone, let ideas out.
2.Free-wheeling is encouraged.
4.Encourage everyone to participate
5.Record all ideas
6.Let ideas incubate
7.Select an appropriate meeting place: comfortable, casual.
8.Group size: The ideal group size is 4-10 people.