5S (Housekeeping, Workplace Organization) Sort Straighten Scrub Systematize Standardize Toyota 5S
5S (Housekeeping, Workplace Organization)
5S is a fundamental first step for any manufacturing company, wishing to call itself world class. The presence of a 5S program is indicative of the commitment of senior management to workplace organization, lean manufacturing and the elimination of muda(Japanese for waste). The 5S program mandates that resources be provided in the required location, and be available as needed to support work activities. These ideals ensure that operations and tasks can be executed as required. (Dimancescu, 1997), (Imai, 1997)& (Osada, 1991)
Imai (1997) provides a description of 5Ss, which are derived from the first letters of the Japanese words.
The five Japanese “5” wordsfor workplace organization are: .
Seiko (proper arrangement) .
Seiko (proper arrangement) (整理),Throw way all the things un-needed
Seiton(orderliness) (整頓)You can find the everything quickly when needed
Seiso(cleanup)(清掃)No excuse for any garbage
Seiketso(Cleanliness)(清潔)Sustain the results of the first 3 –
SShitsuke(personal discipline)(修养) Second 5 S
Second 5 S (Ricoh, Japan) Smile, Smart, Sensible, Speedy, Systematic
Toyota’s 5 S Checklist
Seiko (proper arrangement) (整理), 1. Red tagedeverything un-needed?2. Is there any unnecessary things in the workplace?3. Do you put infrequently used things in the key area?4. Is there personal belongings in the key area?
Seiton(orderliness) (整頓)1. Is bulletin board, table top/inside in order?2. Are tools locations and labels are all decided, implemented?3. Are material, tools, products, containers marked and in rightplaces?4. Any useless stuff in the hallway?
Seiso(cleanup)(清掃)1. Have people responsible for cleaning in every region assigned?2. Has the garbage in work area, hallway cleaned up?3. Is frequent cleaning becoming a habit?4. Is the work place shining?
Seiketso(Cleanliness) )(清潔)1. Are you cleaning as it goes?2. Are you putting things back to order as it goes?3. Is the above 3 s becoming a habit?
Shitsuke(personal discipline)(修养)1. Greeting with high energy, high spirit2. Smiling, good eye contact3. Do you help the process up stream/down stream?4. Do you notice visitors immediately?
For American companies, the S’s are translated into approximate English equivalents: .
Sort: Separate out all that is’ unneeded and eliminate it. .
Straighten: Put things in order, everything has a place. .
Scrub (or shine): Clean everything, make the workplace spotless. .
Systematize: Make cleaning and checking routine. .
Standardize: Sustain the previous 4 steps and improve continually on them.
The 5S approach exemplifies a determination to organize the workplace, keep it neat and clean, establish standardized conditions, and maintain the discipline that is needed to do the job. Note that numerous modifications have been made on the 55 structure. It can be reduced to 4S. It can be modified to a 5S + 1S or 6S program, where the sixth 5 is safety. The 5S concept requires that a discipline of will be installed and maintained.
Imai (1997) relates the story of a Japanese team’s initial site visit to a prospective supplier. Before allowing the supplier to unveil their grand presentation, the Japanese visitors insisted on a tour of gemba(現場)(the shop floor). After just a few minutes in the factory, the visitors knew that the plant was not committed to the highest level of manufacturing and terminated the visit. The moral is that it is very easy to tell whether a plant is practicing a 5S program. In day-to-day operations, it is possible to have some dirt around the plant, but the visual signs of a 5S committed plant are obvious. Details of a 5S program are itemized below in a step-by-step approach.
Step 1: Sort. Organization.
. Set up a schedule to target each area.
. Remove unnecessary items in the workplace. .
Red tag unneeded items, record everything that is thrown out.
. Keep repaired items that will be needed.
. Major housekeeping and cleaning is done by area.
. Inspect the facility for problems, breakages, rust, scratches and grime.
. List everything which needs repair.
. Deal with causes of filth and grime. Red tag grime areas and prioritize conditions for correction.
. Perform management reviews of this and other steps.
Step 2: Straighten.
A place for everything. Where does everything go? . Have a place for everything and everything in its place to assure neatness.
. Analyze the existing conditions (status quo) for tooling, equipment, machinery, inventory, supplies, wiring, bulletin boards, etc., including retrieval and storage.
. Decide where things go, reduce inventories, and create a name and location for everything.
. Decide how things should be put away, including the exact locations. Use labels, tool outlines, and color codes.
. Obey the rules. Determine everyday controls and out-of-stock conditions.
. Define who does the reordering.
. Determine who has missing items or if they are lost.
. Use aisle markings, placement for dollies, forklift, boxes, etc., and establish pallet zones for work in process (WIP).
Step 3: Scrub. Shine and Clean.
. This is more than keeping things clean, it includes ways to keep things clean.
. Establish a philosophy and commitment to be responsible for all aspects of working conditions.
. Clean everything in the workplace, including equipment, and correct root causes (identified in Step 1).
. Perform root cause analysis and remedy machinery and equipmentproblems.
. Complete training on basics of equipment maintenance.
. Divide each area into zones and assign individual responsibilities for each zone.
. Rotate difficult or unpleasant jobs.
. Implement 3-minute, 5-minute and 10-minute 5S activities.
. Use inspection checklists and perform white rag inspections
Step 4: Systematize.
. Make 5S activities routine so that abnormal conditions show up.
. Determine the important points to manage and where to look.
. Maintain and monitor facilities to assure a state of cleanliness.
. Make abnormal conditions obvious with visual controls.
. Set standards, determine necessary tools, and identify abnormalities.
. Determine inspection methods, short-term countermeasures and long term remedies.
. Use visual management tools such as color coding, markings (showing direction or position), labels, equipment markings, maps and charts.
Step 5: Standardize.
. Sustain the 4 previous steps and continually improve on them.
. Acquire self-discipline through the habit of repeating the 4 previous steps.
. Establish standards for each of the 5S steps.
. Establish and perform evaluations of each step. (Imai, 1997) & (Osada, 1991)
The management commitment will determine the control and self-discipline areas for an organization. A 5S program can be set upand operational within 5 to 6 months, but the effort to maintain world class conditions must be continuous. A well run 5S program will resultin a factory that is in control.