August 8, 2015

History of Lean & Guru’s

Lean Guru  Craft Production , Mass Production Fred – Winslow Taylor, Henry Ford, Alfred Sloan,  UAW & results

History of Lean & Guru’s Lean Guru Craft Production , Mass Production Fred – Winslow Taylor, Henry Ford, Alfred Sloan, UAW & results










Craft Production
– 1900’s all cars made by hand
– Built by quasi‐independent tradesmen skilled at design, machining & fitting
– Decentralized organizations
– General purpose machines
– Owner coordinated the process between customer & workers
– Typically only rich could afford product
– Quality was unpredictable
– Manufacturing improvements were generally not shared among workers

• Mass Production– Fred Winslow Taylor
• Foundry manager from Philadelphia
• First to systematically apply scientific principles to to manufacturing
• Father of industrial engineering
• Credited with separating planning from production
– IE’s did time and motion studies to find the best way
• Taylor’s innovation include:
– Standardized work – finding the best and easiest way to perform the tasks
– Reduced cycle time
– Time & motion studies
– Measurement & analysis to continually improve the processes
• The pioneers of the TPS acknowledge a debt to Taylor

Mass Production– Henry Ford
• Interchangeability and ease of assembly parts
• Reduced process steps required for each worker
• Moving assembly line
• Greatly reduced the time to make the product
• Reduced cost to the customer by 2/3 in 12 years (1908 to 1920
• Increased production to 2 million units by 1920
• Doubled the wage of workers
– Alfred Sloan
• Set up a system of professional management by reorganizing GM into a corporate head quarters and separate divisions

• Mass Production– Alfred Sloan
• Set up a system of professional management by reorganizing GM into a corporate head quarters and separate divisions
• Credited with Generally Accepted Accounting Practice(GAAP)
• Increased the gap between the shop floor & management
• GAAP encouraged wasteful manufacturing practices by building to inventory levels rather than to customer demand.
• Provided for fertile grounds for a labor movement

Mass Production– UAW
• Unrest between workers and management lasted for a decade
• 1930’s signed an agreement with the Big Three
– Job security & job rights
» senior workers were last to be laid off
» Senior workers got the best jobs
» Highly restrictive work rules

Mass Production Results
– Workers disliked it
– Quality suffered by taking a back seat to production
– Machinery became larger and more specialized often dedicated to a single task which encouraged batch production and large queues of parts
– Engineering work was specialized which led to design problems as communication between them became harder


Frederick W Taylor (1856-1915)
‘Father of Industrial Engineering’, Author of “The principles of Scientific Management”
•Time and Motion Study’
•Stop Watch to Measure Task Speed’.
Key Taylor Concepts:
•Understand each element of the task
•Select, train and develop the worker
•Have a division of work between management and worker
•Cooperate with the worker to follow the procedures

Henry Ford (1863-1947)
Key Henry Techniques:
•Standardized, interchangeable parts
•Interchangeability of workers
•Simpler task at each work station
•Moving Assembly Line
1896: Built his first automobile
1903: Founded Ford Motor Company
1913: Started the first moving assembly line in Highland Park Plant
1918: Constructed the world largest industrial complex (Rouge Plant)
1919: One of every three cars purchased is a Model T
1927: The 15 million Model T was produced

‘Father of Toyota Production System’,
Key Ohno’sTechniques:
•Pull system (Supermarket)
•Muda(7 wastes)
•Quick die change (from days to minutes and seconds)
•Flexible job assignments
•Removing non-value added work
•U-shaped cells
•One-Piece flow
•Production leveling
Some Interesting facts on early 1950s:
1937-1950: Toyota total production of vehicles: 2685
Ford Rouge Plant: more than 8000/day
9 Japanese workers’productivity = 1 American worker

Shigeo Shingo (1909 -1990)
Key Books:
•Revolution in Manufacturing: The SMED System
•Zero Quality Control: Source Inspection and Poka-Yoke System
•Non-stock Production
•The Toyota Production System from an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint

James Womack and Daniel Jones
Key Books:
•The Machine that changed the world
•Lean Thinking